I think that the tendency for the vowel to disappear in rapid speech is stronger in the adverbs alluded to in this paragraph and listed in section 5.
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Except in gruesome, muesli, Tuesday , only word-final. Exception: muesli.
See also Notes. For exceptions see the next paragraph and the 2-phoneme graphemes. See Notes for how this split digraph is defined. No exceptions. Only exception: psych. The only extension needed is to cover two words with two intervening consonant letters forming a digraph: hythe, scythe , and there appear to be no exceptions.
Two more regularities are:. This applies even more strongly to barre, bizarre, parterre, myrrh. See also section Before other consonant clusters and single consonant letters.
This even applies to various short pronunciations which are exceptions to the main one, e. As can be seen in Table However, I recognise that these are sometimes difficult to distinguish from cases where they have their vocalic pronunciations, and that some words slither between the two;.
However, again I recognise that these are sometimes difficult to distinguish from cases where the two letters are separate graphemes. A few examples are aorta, archaic, chaos, chaotic, dais, kaolin, laity, prosaic; azalea, cameo, deity, erroneous, meteor, museum, neon, peony, petroleum, spontaneity; boa, heroic, poem, poetry, soloist, stoic; actual, annuity, bruin, continuity, cruel, cruet, dual, duel, fluid, genuine, gratuity, ruin, suicide, usual.
There seem to be few or no exceptions. And all six vowel letters are so rarely stressed when functioning as word-final single-letter graphemes that no rule is worth giving for that situation but see section A. For a major class of exceptions see rule Other exceptions: agency, favourite, decency, obesity, penalise, bribery, library, microscope, nitrogen, rivalry, motorist, notify , soloist, culinary, gluttony, jugular, truculent, hydrogen.
Some of these exceptions are derived forms retaining a letter-name vowel from the stem word. A few examples are able, cradle, maple; bible, disciple, idle, title, trifle; noble; bugle, duplex, scruple; cycle, cyclone; acre, April, apron, flagrant, fragrant, sabre; fibre, mitre; cobra, ogre; lucre, putrid; cypress, hybrid. Extension: ochre, where the first intervening consonant is represented by a digraph. A few examples are gamut, granite, planet, tacit; legate, senate; rivet, limit, bigot, minute; unit.
Some exceptions: climate, pilot, private. A few examples are acid, rabid, squalid, tepid, frigid, timid, solid, stolid, cubic, humid, lucid, music, punic, putrid, runic , stupid, tunic. There are thousands of examples; a few are: 2-syllable ending, stress on antepenultimate — these words are exceptions to rule 5 azalea, alien, radium; meteor, comedian, lenient, medium; erroneous, petroleum, polio, odious, odium; dubious ; 1-syllable ending, stress on penultimate courageous, facial, nation, spacious; cohesion, specious; delicious, magician; ocean, social, quotient; crucial, solution.
These are the places where the pronunciation of single vowel letters is at its most unpredictable from the spelling in English and requires most effort to learn, and any attempt to show further regularities would be too complex to be useful because of the large numbers of exceptions. For some discussion of this see section A. As with various other aspects of the system, there is no choice but to learn the rest. Creative Commons - Attribution 4.
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Your e-mail has be sent. Size: small x px Medium x px Large x px. Catalogue Author s Publishers Selections Excerpts. Main system. The rest. Basic phoneme. Other mainsystem correspondences. Exceptions to main system. Exception to main system. Frequent 2-phoneme sequence. Other 2-phoneme grapheme. Other phoneme. Other 2-phoneme graphemes. Russian "soft-indicating" vowels are formed from their "hard-indicating" counterparts by adding an English sound of "y" at the beginning.
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We strongly recommend that you read the following essential lessons to get a better idea of the Russian sound system:. Ask them in the Russian Questions and Answers — a place for students, teachers and native Russian speakers to discuss Russian grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and other aspects of the Russian language. Copyright MasterRussian. The starting place to learn the Russian language on the Internet.
The Russian Alphabet. Learn Russian every day for free! Clicks the "Like" button below to get daily updates on Facebook! About us Home User agreement Link to us. In pronouncing this sound, the mouth is open a bit wider as compared to English. It is pronounced with preceding y in the beginning of a word or after a vowel. Try to avoid the puff of air after the sound typical for the English language. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, as opposed the upper gum ridge in English. Try to avoid a puff of air after the sound typical in the English language.
In pronouncing this letter, the tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth. Try to avoid a puff of unvoiced air after the sound as typical for the English language. When pronouncing it, try to place your tongue higher and more forward in the mouth than in English. When pronouncing this sound, try opening the mouth a bit wider than you do in English.
In some cases it sounds like "oo" in oodles. This letter might look like the number three 3 but it only conveys a sound and has nothing to do with digits. Like with the Russian letter T, the tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth when pronouncing this letter. Unlike in English, the tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth.
This sound is pronounced shorter than in English, with lips more rounded and protruded. Do not confuse this letter with the number four 4.
It remotely reminds "h" in hoopla. No English equivalent. Then place your tongue in between and emit a voiced sound.